Potential of the ornamental nursery in small landholdings
Commercial floriculture is a profitable business, known worldwide and is an industry with an annual trade of approximately $60 billion. The largest commercial floriculture market is in Alsmeer Netherland, which was started by the civil society, namely Flora Hollanda, and now 191 countries are involved in this trade with an annual turnover of more than 50 billion US dollars with a growth rate of 10%.
About 3 lakh ha are under commercial floriculture in India, but contribute only 0.5% of exports due to huge domestic demand. The top 5 states in floral area include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Modern floriculture covers around 700 ha, 70% of which is in greenhouses and 90% under roses only.
Aesthetic taste has developed in the people of our country as well as in J&K. Landscape gardening has become an integral part of home gardening in both cities and rural areas. The green concept has now developed to such an extent that seeds and plants are now imported from European countries.
Besides this lawn, grasses are now in great demand. People import lawn grasses as well as ornamental plants for landscaping and container growing from other states. National highway projects and smart city projects have a high demand for ornamental flora.
According to Assocham’s report, only potted plants worth 2-3 crores are imported into Kashmir every year from other states. This indicates the scope and potential of landscaping in Kashmir. This draws attention to the development of organized business units which in turn will contribute to entrepreneurship development and livelihood security aimed at empowering women, youth and smallholder farmers.
In Kashmir, local demand for the planting of highways, the development of parks, home gardens and public gardens is an emerging and identified sector that can provide livelihood security to unemployed youth. Home gardening is a new emerging trend in Kashmir where the average fee for a gardener per house/hotel/office having an area of 500 m2 ranges from Rs 3,000 to 4,000 for two visits, excluding planting fees.
The Kashmir Valley is dependent on other states for potted plants and the demand is met with an annual turnover of Crores. Northeastern regions (Sikkim, Gangtok, Kalimpong, etc.) introduce, produce and supply temperate potted ornamental plants to other states. Camellia, azalea, temperate orchids, cyclamen, tuberous begonia, etc. are propagated and supplied to northern states including Jammu and Kashmir and HP with an annual turnover of Rs 2-3 Crores. Uttrakhand (Bheental, Kainchimorh, Nochukiyataal and Nanital regions) is progressing for the supply of potted plants, especially pelargonium, primrose, calceolaria, etc. in Delhi and the allied regions.
The potential of the ornamental nursery is that it gives yields of Rs 5 lakhs from a 2 channel area which indicates its reach in small land holdings and efforts should be made to give it a practical shape for sustainable livelihood security.
1) Availability of industrial land for ornamental nursery in each district.
2) 100% aid for infrastructure
3) Quality plant material.
4) Subsidy for transport and packing material.
5) Product Recognition.
Initiatives that can be taken:
A) Develop a nursery cluster in each district.
B) Delineate activities on the cluster approach
C) Kisan card facility to producers.
D) Capacity building and technical support in propagation.
E) The PQ protocol should be relaxed so that the supply of elite varieties can be assured.
Role of government
Develop a production module based on clusters by district.
The establishment of demonstration and training centers in each district will provide hands-on technology training and know-how.
Hands-on experience, demonstrations and skill development training for propagation, production and post-harvest management.
Capacity building for start-ups with the aim of conducting field exercises and supporting skills development. .
Facilities for new business and technology programs for assured long-term returns.
Link to marketing chain at UT, state and country level.
Training, demonstration and technology transfer to skilled and unskilled people and contractors.
Disseminate a message through demonstration units on the profitability of trading in a small area.
Awareness/technical skills of actors
Stakeholders need to know the activities they need to carry out to achieve high returns in the short and long term.
Bulb crops in local and national demand
Tulip, hyacinth, Dutch iris, buttercup, freesia, fritillaria, wood sorrel, calla lily and daffodils are in high demand locally and nationally. Spreading them will help them conquer the market with good returns.
Glossy Abelia, Lemon Verbena, False Indigo, Butterfly Bush Barberry, English Box wood, Chinese Trumpet vine, Flowering Quince, Clematis, Euonymous, Forsythia, Hibiscus, Hortensia, Hypericum, Jasminum, Bay Laurel, Glossy/Chinese Privet, Japanese privet, Common Privet, Mohania, Myrtle, Sweet Olive, Oleander, Virginia, Mock Orange, Himalayan Cherry, Cherry Laurel, Edward Rose, Vanhouttei Spiraea, English Lilac, Japanese Maple, Silk Tree, Indian Bean, Tree of Judah, Cedar of Himalayan, Hazelnut, London Plane, Pinus, Flowering Apricot, English Oak, Weeping Willow, Corkscrew Willow, Ginkgo, Chinese Privet, etc. are examples of temperate floral richness in demand.
Azalea, Hedera, Potted Chrysanthemum, Tuberous Begonia, Potted Bulbous Plants (Tulip, Narcissus, Hyacinth, Lily), Calceolaria, Geranium, Fushia, Abies, etc. are popular pot plants and should be propagated.
Ageratum, Aster, Antirrhinum, Balsam, Celosia, Cosmos, Candytuft, California, Poppy, Carnation, Galliardia, Gazania, Holly hocks, Heliehrysum, Larkspur, Marigold, Panoy, Phlox, Petunia, Salvia, Verbena, Zinnia, Gypsophilla etc. are the annuals that are in high demand and a nursery calendar for summer and winter annuals should be developed.
Propagation of annuals.
Mother block of shrubs and trees.
High-tech propagation units.
Seasonal flowering plants.
Dormancy is a condition in which viable seeds do not germinate even when environmental conditions are favorable for germination.
Methods used to overcome dormancy
A) Scarification of seeds with sulfuric acid or mechanical means.
B) Hot water treatment of seeds.
C) Seed stratification.
Propagation by cuttings
A plant part can become a complete plant when detached and planted under proper conditions. The detached parts are called cuttings.
Hardwood Cuttings: Mature and dormant hardwood stems; woody species, dormant season taken from late fall to early spring, 10-76 cm with at least 2 nodes and using IBA/NAA rooting hormone at 2500-5000 ppm
Semi-hardwood cuttings: partially mature wood on current year’s growth taken in late spring to late summer, 7.5-15cm using rooting hormone @ IBA or NAA at 1,000-3,000 ppm in general,
Softwood Cuttings: Selected soft new succulent growth from late winter to early summer, 7.5 – 12.5 cm using IBA or NAA rooting hormone at 500 – 1250 ppm typically.
Herbaceous cuttings: Succulent stems of non-woody plants 7.5 – 12.5 cm using IBA or NAA rooting hormone at 500 – 1250 ppm.